Keratoconus is an ocular disease that usually occurs at the beginning of puberty and tends to progress until the third decade of life. As a result of this disease, the normal shape of the cornea, which is round spherical, changes into a cone and cause a significant decrease in vision. Keratoconus is a progressive disease occurs in one or both eyes, but usually both eyes are affected.
Clinical symptoms of keratoconus are different depending on the severity of the disease. Since progression of keratoconus is gradual, it may be difficult to diagnose the disease initially. However, in some cases, the cornea can quickly progress. As the cornea becomes more irregular in shape, it causes progressive nearsightedness and irregular astigmatism to develop, creating additional problems with distorted and blurred vision.
At the early stage of keratoconus, eyeglasses or soft contact lenses may help to correct regular nearsightedness and astigmatism. But with the progression of the disease and development of irregular astigmatism eyeglasses and regular soft contact lenses designs no longer provide adequate vision correction.
During the surgery, after removing corneal epithelium, a light sensitive eye drop, Riboflavin, a type of B vitamin, is dropped into the cornea, which then is activated by UV light. This surgery is the only way to arrest the development of the progression of Keratoconus. The studies have shown that corneal cross-linking can slow down or stop the progression of Keratoconus. It is even observed that this operation in some cases reverse the changes caused by keratoconus.
In progressive cases, keratoplasty is the only procedure that should be done.
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